Robert Fox, Ph.D.https://bios.inl.gov/Lists/Researcher/DisplayOverrideForm.aspx?ID=166Robert Fox, Ph.D. Dr. Fox is a senior chemical research scientist actively involved in proposing, capturing, performing, and directing innovative scientific research in the areas of analytical chemistry, process chemistry, electrochemistry, supercritical fluid sciences, nanomaterials synthesis and characterization, metal –complexation reactions, lanthanide and actinide separations, renewable and biofuel synthesis, geochemistry, environmental radiochemistry, LIBS atomic spectroscopy, laser spectroscopy, and molecular spectroscopy. Dr. Fox is the technical lead and Principal Investigator of a number of successful internally and externally funded research programs for the U. S. Department of Energy, the U. S. Department of Defense, the U. S. Department of Homeland Security, and other U. S. Government and private industrial entities. Dr. Fox is Sr. Capture Manager for INLs Advanced Design and Manufacturing Initiative and has 25+ years of experience successfully capturing and conducting federal and private research. Dr. Fox is the Group Leader of B634 Chemical Systems, and team leader of the INL Supercritical Fluids Group, and has actively mentored more than 50 interns, graduate students, post-docs, early-career staff, and new hires over a 30-year INL career. Dr. Fox oversees four research laboratory spaces in IF-688 EIL and has built considerable research capabilities and a research team. Dr. Fox has performed research at IRC, MFC, TRA, CFA, CAES, Sandia National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Lawrence-Berkley National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Dugway Proving Ground, and Edgewood Chemical Biological Facility. Duties have traditionally included assisting management in development, implementation, and execution of programs designed to promote quality, safety, regulatory compliance, and efficient business operations. Dr. Fox is also a recognized expert in pressure system safety within the DOE national laboratory community.​ <div class="ExternalClass3194EA6CBC434CB59A747AB0B9FE823A"><p>​Ph. D., Chemistry - University of Idaho</p><p>M.S., Biochemistry - University of Idaho</p><p>B.S., Bacteriology - University of Idaho</p></div><div class="ExternalClass9F51CA6EBEE64B18BDBC45B3CF7D09BD"><p>​Affiliate Faculty, Department of Chemistry, University of Idaho<br>Affiliate Faculty, Department of Chemistry, Idaho State University<br>American Chemical Society</p></div><div class="ExternalClassA6D6CD36607640BE92926B500CE9C422"><p>Atifi, Abderrahman, Baek, D.L., Fox, R.V., “Electrodeposition of Dysprosium in pyrrolidinium triflate ionic liquid at ambient temperature: Unraveling system efficiency and impact of solvation interplays on the reduction process.” Electrochimica Acta, 2020, 278, 138140, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2021.138140.<br></p><p><br></p><p>Sinclair, L.K., Tester, J.W., Thompson, J.F.H., Fox, R.V., “Supercritical extraction of lanthanide tributyl phosphate complexes: Current status and future directions”, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2019, 58(22), pp. 9199 – 9211.<br></p><p><br></p><p>Turnaoglu, T., Minnick, D.L., Morais, A.R.C., Baek, D.L., Fox, R.V., Scurto, A.M., Shiflett, M.B., “High-Pressure Vapor−Liquid Equilibria of 1-Alkyl-1-Methylpyrrolidinium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Ionic Liquids and CO2,” Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 2019, Article ASAP  DOI: 10.1021/acs.jced.8b01236.<br></p><p><br></p><p>Morais, A.R.C., Alaras, L.M., Baek, D.L., Fox, R.V., Shiflett, M.B., Scurto, A.M., “Viscosity of 1-Alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Ionic Liquids Saturated with Compressed CO2” Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 2019, Article ASAP DOI: 10.1021/acs.jced.8b01237.<br></p><p><br></p><p>Case, M.E., Fox, R.V., Baek, D.L., Wai, C.M., Extraction of rare earth elements from chloride media with tetrabutyl diglycolamide in 1-octanol modified carbon dioxide,” Metals, 2019, 9, 429. Metals 2019, 9, 429. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/met9040429.<br></p><p><br></p><p>Sinclair, L.K., Tester, J.W., Thompson, J., Fox, R.V., “The role of water in extraction and separation of rare earth elements in supercritical carbon dioxide.”  Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 2018, published on-line March 9, 2018.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.supflu.2018.02.009.<br></p><p><br></p><p>Case, M.E., Fox, R.V., Baek, D.L., Mincher, B.J., Wai, C.M., “Extraction behavior of selected rare earth metals from acidic chloride media using tetrabutyl diglycolamide.”  Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange, 2017, published on-line September 21, 2017.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07366299.2017.1373984.<br></p><p><br></p><p>Sinclair, L.K., Baek, D.L., Thompson, J., Tester, J.W., Fox, R.V., “Rare earth element extraction from pretreated bastnäsite in supercritical carbon dioxide.”  Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 2017, 124, pp. 20–29.​</p><p><br></p><p>Baek, D.L., Fox, R.V., Case, M.E., Sinclair, L.K., Schmidt, A.B., McIlwain, P.R., Mincher, B.J., Wai, C.M., "Extraction of rare earth oxides using supercritical carbon dioxide modified with tri‑n‑butyl phosphate−nitric acid adducts," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2016, 55, pp. 7154−7163.</p><p> </p><p>Mincher, B.J., Wai, C.M., Fox, R.V., Baek, D.L., Yen, C., Case, M.E., "The separation of lanthanides and actinides in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide."  Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 2015.  Published on-line October 28, 2015.  DOI 10.1007/s10967-015-4576-5</p><p> </p><p>Martin, M.Z., Fox, R.V., Miziolek, A.W., DeLucia, F.C., Andre, N., “Spectral analysis of rare earth elements using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.”  Next-Generation Spectroscopic Technologies VIII, Mark A. Druy, Richard A. Crocombe, David P. Bannon, eds., Proc. of SPIE Vol. 9482, 2015.</p><p> </p><p>Trevor S. Huntsinger, Kevin V. Nielson, Juan Carlos Chavez, Lisa Lau, Robert V. Fox, Joshua J. Pak., “Preparation and study of CuInZnS3 and AgInZnS3 nanoparticles.”  248th ACS National Meeting, August 10 – 14, 2014, San Francisco, California (INL/CON-14-33154).</p><p> </p><p>Bruce J. Mincher; Robert V. Fox; Mary E. Mincher; Chien M. Wai, “Trivalent lanthanide separations using TBDGA in molecular and ionic liquid diluents.”  20th International Solvent Extraction Conference, September 7 – 11, 2014, Wurzburg, Germany (INL/CON-14-32726).</p><p> </p><p>Bruce J. Mincher; Robert V. Fox; Mary E. Mincher; Chien M. Wai, “Trivalent actinide and lanthanide separations using tetraalkyldiglycolamides (TCnDGA) in molecular and ionic liquid diluents”.  Proceedings, 20th International Solvent Extraction Conference, September 7 – 11, 2014, Wurzburg, Germany (INL/CON-14-31470).</p><p> </p><p>Fox, R. V., Roberts, L., DeLucia, F.C., Miziolek, A.W., Whitehouse, A. I., “A novel laser-based approach for cleaning contaminated metallic surfaces coupled with rapid residue analysis,” Next-Generation Spectroscopic Technologies VI, Mark A. Druy, Richard A. Crocombe, eds., Proc. of SPIE Vol. 8726, 2013.</p><p> </p><p>Groenewold, G.S., Avci, R., Fox, R.V., Deliorman, M., Suo, Z.Y., Kellerman, L., “Characterization of arsenic contamination on rust from ton containers,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2013, 52(4), 1396 – 1404.</p><p> </p><p>Mezyk, Stephen P., Mincher, Bruce J., Cooper, William J., Cole, S. Kirkham, Fox, Robert V., Gardinali, Piero R., “Kinetic model for the radical degradation of tri-halonitromethane disinfection byproducts in water.” Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 2012, 81, pp. 1646 – 1652.</p><p> </p><p>Mezyk, S. P., Cooper, W.J., Mincher, B. J., Cole, S.K., Fox, R. V., Gardinali, P. R., “Free-radical chemistry of disinfection byproducts. 4. Degradation mechanisms of chloronitromethane and bromonitromethane.” J. Phys. Chem. A, 2011.</p><p> </p><p>Bruce J. Mincher, Stephen P. Mezyk, William J. Cooper, S. Kirkham Cole, Robert V. Fox,† and Piero R. Gardinali, “Free-radical chemistry of disinfection byproducts. 3. degradation mechanisms of chloronitromethane, bromonitromethane, and dichloronitromethane”, J. Phys. Chem. A (2010), vol. 114, pp. 117–125.</p><p> </p><p>T.E Lister and R.V. Fox, “Electrochemical synthesis of 2,2-dinitropropanol” ECS Transactions, 13 (11) 27-38 (2008).</p><p> </p><p>T. E. Lister, R.V. Fox, “Electrochemical synthesis of 2,2-dinitropropanol,” J. Applied Electrochemistry 38 (2008) 523-529.</p><p> </p><p>R. V. Fox, A. K. Gianotto, M. M. Cortez, V. A. Deason, G. S. Groenewold, R. Avci, M. Deliorman, E. Williams, and T. Tu, "DARPA SHARK Phase I Final Report," INL/EXT-07-12822, June 2007.</p><p> </p><p>Gary S. Groenewold, Marnie M. Cortez, Anita K. Gianotto, Garold L. Gresham, John E. Olson, Robert V. Fox, Byron M. White, William F. Bauer, Recep Avci, Muhammedin Deliorman and Eric Williams, “Surface analysis of particulates from laboratory hood exhaust manifold,” Surf. Interface Anal. 2007; 39: 547–553.</p><p> </p><p>S. Kirkham Cole, W.J. Cooper, R. V. Fox, S.P. Mezyk, B. J. Mincher, K. O’Shea, “Free Radical Chemistry of Disinfection Byproducts. 2. Rate Constants and Degradation Mechanisms of Trichloronitromethane (Chloropicrin)”,  Environ. Sci. Technol. 2007, 41, 863-869.</p><p> </p><p>Rodriguez, Rene G.; Mezyk, Stephen P.; Stewart, Charlynn; Rollins, Harry W.; Mincher, Bruce J.; Fox, Robert V.; Phillips, BarJean; Brey, Richard. “Thermal lensing in a supercritical water medium.” Journal of Physical Chemistry A” (2007), 111(3), 468-471.</p><p> </p><p>Mezyk, S. P.; Helgeson, T.; Cole, S. K.; Cooper, W. J.; Fox, R. V.; Gardinali, P. R.; Mincher, B. J., “Free radical chemistry of disinfection-byproducts. 1. kinetics of hydrated electron and hydroxyl radical reactions with halonitromethanes in water.” J. Phys. Chem. A, 2006, 110, 2176 – 2180. </p><p> </p><p>Fox, R.V., R. D. Ball, P. deB. Harrington, C.M. Wai, “Holmium nitrate complexation with tri-n-butyl phosphate in supercritical carbon dioxide.” Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 36 (2005) 137 - 144.</p><p> </p><p>Groenewold, G.S., Bauer, W.F., Fox, R.V., Mincher, B.J., Gianotto, A.K., “Actinide analysis and leaching of samples collected from the glovebox excavator method project for OU 7-13/14.” ICP/EXT-04-00439, April 2005.</p><p> </p><p>Cole, S.K., W.J. Cooper, R.V. Fox, P.R. Gardinali, S.P. Mezyk, B.J. Mincher and K.E. O'Shea, “The radiation chemistry and free radical treatment of bromonitromethane.”  Proceedings of TiO2-9 and AOT-10 Conferences,  D. Ollis and H. Al-Ekabi (eds), University of Western, Ontario Press, 2005.</p><p> </p><p>Fox, R.V., R. D. Ball, P. deB. Harrington, H.W. Rollins, J.J. Jolley, C.M. Wai, “Praseodymium nitrate and neodymium nitrate complexation with organophosphorus reagents in supercritical carbon dioxide solvent.”  Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 31 (2004) 273-286.</p><p> </p><p>G. S. Groenewold, R. Avci, C. Karahan, K. Lefebre, R. V. Fox, M. M. Cortez, A. K. Gianotto, J. Sunner, and W. L. Manner “Characterization of interlayer Cs+ in clay samples using secondary ion mass spectrometry with laser sample modification.”  Anal. Chem. vol. 76, 2004, pp. 2893-2901.</p><p> </p><p>Mincher, B.J., Fox, R.V., Riddle, C.L., Cooper, D.C., Groenewold, G.S., “Strontium and cesium sorption to Snake River Plain, Idaho Soil.”  Radiochimica Acta, 91, 2003.</p><p> </p><p>Mincher, B.J., R.V. Fox, D.C. Cooper, G.S. Groenewold, “Neptunium and plutonium sorption to snake river plain, Idaho soil.”  Radiochimica Acta, 91, 2003.</p><p> </p><p>Fox, R.V., B.J. Mincher, “Supercritical fluid extraction of plutonium and americium from soil using -diketone and tributyl phosphate complexants.”  ACS Symposium Series 860, Supercritical Carbon Dioxide:  Separations and Processes, A.S. Gopalan, C.M. Wai, H.K. Jacobs, eds., American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2003.</p><p> </p><p>Mincher, B. J., R. V. Fox, R. G. G. Holmes, R. Robbins, C. Boardman, “Supercritical fluid extraction of plutonium and americium from soil using thenoyltrifluoroacetylacetone and tributylphosphate complexation.”  Radiochimica Acta, 89, 613-617, 2001.</p><p> </p><p>Fox, R. V., B. J. Mincher, R. G. G. Holmes, “Extraction of plutonium from spiked INEEL soil samples using the ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction (LA-SFE) technique.”  INEEL/EXT-99-00870, August 26, 1999.</p></div>Critical Materials;Chemical Processinghttps://bios.inl.gov/BioPhotos/Robert%20Fox.jpg<div class="ExternalClassAD6877B331904D8D86C08AB10A0A64B2"><p>Fox, Robert V., Mincher, B.J., Case, M.E., Baek, D.L., Wai, C.M., Yen, C., Pan H-.B., “Methods of recovering rare earth elements from a material.” US Patent 10,533,239, January 14, 2020.​<br></p><p><br></p><p>Fox, Robert V., Zhang, Fengyan, Rodriguez, Rene G., Pak, Joshua J., and Sun, Chivin, 2016, “Methods for forming particles”, Patent 9,371,226, June 21, 2016.</p><p> </p><p>Fox, R.V., Rodriguez, R.G., Pak, J.J., Sun, C., Margulieux, K.R., Holland, A.W., 2016, “Methods of forming single source precursors, methods of forming polymeric single source precursors, and single source precursors formed by such methods,” Patent 9,315,529, April 19, 2016.</p><p> </p><p>Fox, R.V., Rodriguez, R.R., Pak, J.J., Sun C.,2015, “Hybrid particles and associated methods,” Patent 8,951,446, February 10, 2015.</p><p> </p><p>Fox, R.V., Rodriguez, R.R., Pak, J.J., Sun C., Margulieux, K.R., Holland, A.W., 2014, “Methods of forming single source precursors, methods of forming polymeric single source precursors, and single source precursors formed by such methods,” Patent 8,829,217, September 9, 2014.</p><p> </p><p>Fox, R.V., Rodriguez, R.R., Pak, J.J., Sun C., 2015, “Hybrid particles and associated methods,” Patent 8,951,446, February 10, 2015.</p><p> </p><p>Fox, Robert V., Rodriguez, Rene, G., Pak, Joshua J., 2013, “Methods of forming semiconductor devices and devices formed using such methods,” Patent 8,445,388, May 21, 2013.</p><p> </p><p>Fox, Robert V., Rodriguez, Rene G., Pak, Joshua J., Holland, Andrew, Sun, Chivin, Margulieux, Kelsey, 2012, “Methods of forming single source precursors, methods of forming polymeric single source precursors, and single source precursors and intermediate products formed by such methods,” Patent 8,324,414, December 4, 2012.</p><p> </p><p>Fox, Robert V., Rodriguez, Rene G., Pak, Joshua J., 2011, “Methods for forming particles from single source precursors," Patent 8,003,070, August 23, 2011.</p><p> </p><p>Fox, Robert V., Avci, Recep, Groenewold, Gary, S., 2011, “Systems and strippable coatings for decontaminating structures that include porous material,” Patent 8,070,881, December 6, 2011.</p><p> </p><p>Fox, Robert V., Avci, Recep, Groenewold, Gary S., 2010, “Methods for removing contaminant matter from a porous material,” Patent 7,833,357, November 16, 2010.</p><p> </p><p>Fox, Robert V., Avci, Recep, Groenewold, Gary S., 2010, “Polyphosphazine-based polymer materials,” Patent 7,723,463,  May 25, 2010.</p><p><br>  <br>Fox, Robert V., Lister, Tedd E., 2010, “Methods for performing electrochemical nitration reactions,” Patent 7,713,401, May 11, 2010.</p><p> </p><p>Fox, Robert V, Ginosar, Daniel M., 2010, “Method for removing impurities from an impurity-containing fluid stream,” Patent 7,691,270, April 6, 2010.</p><p> </p><p>Fox, R.V., Ginosar, D.M., Petkovic, L.M.,  2009, “Production of Biodiesel Using Expanded Gas Solvents,” Patent 7,514,575, April 7, 2009.</p><p> </p><p>Fox, R.V., 2008, “Method for making an energetic material,” Patent 7,345,208, March 18, 2008.</p><p> </p><p>Janikowski, Stuart K., Argyle, Mark D., Fox, Robert V., Propp, W. Alan, Toth, William J., Ginosar, Daniel M., Allen, Charles A., Miller, David L., 2007, “System configured for applying a modifying agent to a non-equidimensional substrate,”  Patent  7,241,340, July 10, 2007.</p><p> </p><p>Ginosar, D.M, Fox, R.V., Janikowski, S.K., 2006, “Method for destroying halocarbon compositions using a critical solvent,”  Patent 6,984,768, January 10, 2006. </p><p> </p><p>Propp, W. Alan, Argyle, Mark D., Janikowski, Stuart K., Fox, Robert V., Toth; William J., Ginosar, Daniel M., Allen, Charles A., Miller, David L., 2005, “System configured for applying multiple modifying agents to a substrate,” Patent 6,962,731, November 8, 2005.</p><p> </p><p>Ginosar, D.M., Thompson, D.N., Coates, K., Zalewski, D.J., Fox, R.V., 2005, “Method for reactivating solid catalysts used in alkylation reactions,” Canadian Patent CA 2,411,091, June 14, 2005.</p><p> </p><p>Ginosar, D.M., Thompson, D.N., Coates, K., Zalewski, D.J., Fox, R.V., 2005, “Method for reactivating solid catalysts used in alkylation reactions,”  Patent 6,887,813, May 3, 2005.</p><p> </p><p>Ginosar, D.M., R.V. Fox, 2005, “Process for producing biodiesel, lubricants, and fuel and lubricant additives in a critical fluid medium,”  Patent 6,887,283, May 3, 2005.</p><p> </p><p>Propp, W. Alan, Argyle, Mark D., Janikowski, Stuart K., Fox, Robert V., Toth, William J., Ginosar, Daniel M., Allen, Charles A., Miller; David L., 2003, “System configured for applying multiple modifying agents to a substrate,”  Patent 6,652,654, November 25, 2003.</p><p> </p><p>Janikowski, S.K., Toth, W.J., Ginosar, D.M., Allen, C.A., Argyle, M.D., Fox, R.V., Propp, W.A., Miller, D.L., 2003, “System configured for applying a modifying agent to a non-equidimensional substrate,” Patent 6,623,686, September 23, 2003.</p><p> </p><p>Ginosar, D.M., Fox, R.V., Thompson, D.N., Coates, K., Zalewski, D.J. , 2003, “Method for reactivating solid catalysts used in alkylation reactions,” Patent 6,579,821, June 17, 2003.</p><p> </p><p>Allen, C.A., Argyle, M.D.,  Fox, R.V., . Ginosar, D.M,  Janikowski, S.K., Miller,  D.L., Propp, W.A., Toth, W.J., 2002, “Methods for modifying monofilaments, bundles of monofilaments, and fibrous structural material,” Patent 6,495,204, December 17, 2002.</p><p> </p><p>Ginosar, D. M.,  Fox, R.V. and Kong, P.C., 2000, “Solid catalyzed isoparaffin alkylation at supercritical fluid and near-supercritical fluid conditions,” Patent 6,103,948, August 15, 2000.</p></div>Distinguished Staff Scientist<div class="ExternalClassE7A19A84A6F842AE916222A4E9AAD43F"><p>2017 INL Outstanding Scientific Achievement​</p><p>2010 State of Idaho Innovator of the Year; Idaho Innovation Awards</p><p>2010 State of Idaho Innovation of the Year Award; Early-Stage Innovation Category; Idaho Innovation Awards</p><p>2010 R&D 100 Award, SSC Biodiesel<br>2010 Nominated R&D Magazine Scientist of the Year<br>2010 Runner Up, Wall Street Journal Technology Innovation Award-Energy Category<br>2010 Finalist, Platts Global Energy Award, Sustainable Technology Innovation of the Year<br>2010 Award of Excellence for Technological Innovation, Platts Global Energy Awards<br>2010 Federal Laboratory Consortium Outstanding Technology Development Award, SSC Biodiesel<br>2010 INL Laboratory Director Award<br>2010 Gordon Battelle Award for Technology Impact – Supercritical Solid Catalyst Biodiesel<br>2010 INL Inventor of the Year<br>2009 R&D 100 Award, Precision Nanoparticles<br>2009 State of Idaho Innovation of the Year; Early-Stage Innovation Category; Idaho Innovation Awards<br>2009 INL Laboratory Director Award<br>2009 INL Inventor of the Year<br>2008 INL Inventor of the Year Nomination</p></div>robert.fox@inl.gov

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