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Researcher

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William Windes, Ph.D.

Distinguished Scientist

Research Areas:
Materials Characterization

Biography:
Dr. William E. Windes is a Distinguished Scientist at Idaho National Laboratory whose research interests are in the areas of processing, characterization, and analysis of novel material systems for both nuclear and non-nuclear applications. These include materials for use in high temperature, irradiation, and other extreme environments. He is the DOE technical lead for the DOE Advanced Reactor Technology Graphite R&D program, responsible for thermo-mechanical testing of non-irradiated and irradiated graphite and composites, development of test standards and code case development for determining material properties of nuclear graphite and composites. He holds a doctorate in material science and engineering from University of Idaho, a master’s in nuclear engineering from University of Illinois and a bachelor’s in nuclear engineering from University of California at Santa Barbara.

Education:

​Ph.D., Materials Science and Enginering - University of Idaho

M.S., Nuclear Engineering - University of Illinois

B.S., Nuclear Engineering - UC Santa Barbara

Affiliations:

American Society of Mechanical Engineers
American Society for Testing and Materials
American Nuclear Society
Generation IV Information Forum (GIF) USA graphite representative

Publications:

Karthik Chinnathambi, Steve Johns; Tyler Poulsen; Joshua J Kane, William E Windes, and Rick Ubic, “Formation of Fullerenes in Nuclear Graphite under  High-Temperature In situ Electron-Irradiation”, submitted to Carbon, August 2018.


W.E. Windes, T.D. Burchell, and M. Davenport, “The Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) Graphite R&D Program”, HTR 2018 Proceedings, June 2018.


W.E. Windes, T.D. Burchell, M. Davenport, W. David Swank, and David Rohrbaugh, “The USA’S Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) Irradiation Experiment”, HTR 2018 Proceedings, June 2018.


Joshua J. Kane, Hai Huang, William E. Windes, “Modelling Nuclear Graphite Oxidation Intrinsically”, HTR 2018 Proceedings, June 2018.


W. David Swank, David T. Rohrbaugh, David L. Cottle, and William E. Windes, “High Temperature Annealing of Irradiated Nuclear Grade Graphite”, HTR 2018 Proceedings, June 2018.


Joshua J. Kane, Austin C. Matthews, Christopher J. Orme, Cristian I. Contescu, W. David Swank, William E. Windes, “Effective Gaseous Diffusion Coefficients of Select Ultra-fine, Super-fine and Medium Grain Nuclear Graphite”, Carbon 136 (2018) 369-379.


José David Arregui-Mena, Philip D. Edmondson, Lee Margetts, D. V. Griffiths, William E. Windes, Mark Carroll, Paul M Mummery, “Characterisation of the spatial variability of material properties of Gilsocarbon and NBG-18 using random fields”, Journal of Nuclear Materials, v511 (2018) 91-108.


Karthik Chinnathambi, Steve Johns, Wontak Shin, Joshua J Kane, William E Windes, and Rick Ubic, “A New Oxidation Based Technique for Artifact Free TEM Specimen Preparation of Nuclear Graphite”, Journal of Nuclear Materials, v505 (2018) 62-68.

 

Robert W Mee, Yoonjo (Jo Jo) Lee, Jose D Arregui-Mena, Nidia C Gallego, Timothy D Burchell, Joshua J Kane, William E Windes, “Beyond the Classical Kinetic Model for Chronic Graphite Oxidation by Moisture in High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors”, Journal of Nuclear Materials, November 2017.

 

Helen Freeman, Brindusa Mironov, William Windes, Marzoqa Alnairi, Andrew Scott, Aidan Westwood, Rik Brydson, “Microstructural changes in neutron irradiated nuclear graphites PCEA and PCIB”, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 491, August 2017, Pages 221–231.

 

Joshua J. Kane, Cristian I. Contescu, Rebecca E. Smith, Gerhard Strydom, and William E. Windes, “Understanding the Reaction of Nuclear Graphite with Molecular Oxygen: Kinetics, Transport, and Structural Evolution" Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 493, September 2017, Pages 343–367.

 

Mark C. Carroll, William E. Windes, David T. Rohrbaugh, Joseph P. Strizak, and Timothy D. Burchell, “Leveraging comprehensive baseline datasets to quantify property variability in nuclear-grade graphites”, Nuclear Engineering and Design, 307 (2016) 77–85.

 

T. Burchell and W.E. Windes, “A Comparison of the Irradiation Creep Behavior of Several Graphites”, Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, Vol. 115, 2016.

 

Jae-Won Park, Eung-Seon Kim, Jae-Un Kim, Yootaek Kim, William E. Windes, “Enhancing the oxidation resistance of graphite by applying an SiC coat with crack healing at an elevated temperature”, Applied Surface Science, 378 (2016) 341–349.

 

David Petti, Richard Wright, Will Windes and Paul Demkowicz, “Fuels and Materials Challenges for the Very High Temperature Reactor”, Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, Vol 114, No. 1, June 2016.
C. Karthik, J. Kane, D. P. Butt, W. Windes, R. Ubic, “Neutron Irradiation Induced Microstructural Changes in NBG-18 and IG-110 Nuclear Graphites”, Carbon, 86 (2015) pp 124-131.

 

W.D. Swank and W. E. Windes, “Specimen Size Effects in the Determination of Nuclear Grade Graphite Thermal Diffusivity”, ASTM Special Technical Papers, STP-2013-0143, June 2014.

 

J. Kane, C. Karthik, R. Ubic, W. Windes, D. P. Butt, “An oxygen transfer model for high purity graphite oxidation”, Carbon, 59 (2013) 49-64.

 

W. David Swank, Joseph P. Strizak, Joseph R. Lord, Timothy D. Burchell, William E. Windes, “An Inter-Laboratory Comparison of Graphite Testing Procedures”, 106 [1], June (2012).

 

C. Karthik, , J. Kane, D. P. Butt, W. Windes, and R. Ubic, “Microstructural characterization of next-generation nuclear graphites,” Microscopy and Microanalysis, 18 (2012) 272-278.

 

W. E. Windes, T. D. Burchell, W. D. Swank, M. C. Carroll, “The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Graphite R&D Program”, Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 105 [1], November (2011).

 

J. Kane, C. Karthik, D. P. Butt, W. E. Windes, R. Ubic, “Oxidation Studies on NBG-18 Grade Nuclear Graphite”, Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 105 [1], November (2011).

 

J. Kane, C. Karthik, D. P. Butt, W. Windes, and R. Ubic, “Microstructural characterization and pore structure analysis of nuclear graphite” Journal of Nuclear Materials, 415 [2] 189-197 (2011).

 

C. Karthik, J. Kane, D.P. Butt, W.E. Windes, R. Ubic, “In situ transmission electron microscopy of electron-beam induced damage process in nuclear grade graphite”, Journal of Nuclear Materials, 412 (2011) 321–326, 29 March 2011.

 

T. R. Allen, K. Sridharan, L. Tan, W. E. Windes, J. I. Cole, D. C. Crawford, Gary S. Was, “ Materials Challenges for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems“, Nuclear Technology, Vol. 162-3 (June 2008) pp. 342-357.

 

Lance L. Snead, Yutai Katoh, Will Windes, Kobus Smit, “Candidate Structural Materials for In-Core VHTR Application”, Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, Vol 98, No 1, June (2008).

 

W. E. Windes, C. Smith, D. Wendt, A. Erickson, J. Walraven, and P. A. Lessing, “Electrode Coatings for High Temperature Hydrogen Electrolysis”, Journal of Material Science, Vol. 42 (2007) pp. 2717–2723.

 

Y. Katoh, L.L. Snead, T. Nozawa, N.B. Morley, W.E. Windes, “Advanced Radiation-Resistant Ceramic Composites”, Advances in Science and Technology Vol. 45 (2006) pp. 1915-1924.

 

Seong-Gu Hong, Yutai Katoh, Will Windes, Lance Snead, James Klett, ”Stress Analysis of Composite Control Rod Tubes for Gen IV Reactor”, Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, Vol 94, No 1, June (2006).

 

W. E. Windes, Y. Katoh, L. Snead, C. Henager, “Structural Ceramic Composites for the VHTR”, Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, Vol 94, No 1, June (2006).

 

Lance L. Snead, Will Windes, James Klett, Yutai Katoh, “Carbon Fiber Composites for Harsh Nuclear Environments”, Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, Vol 94, No 1, June (2006).

 

W.E. Windes, J. Zimmerman, and I.E. Reimanis, “Electrophoretic Deposition Applied to Thick Metal-Ceramic Coatings”, Surface and Coatings Technology 157 (2002) 267- 273.

 

E.D. Steffler, J.K. Wright, and W. E. Windes, “Crack Growth Observations in a Graded Composite Using PSMI”, 25th Annual Conference on Composites, Advanced Ceramics, Materials, and Structures: A: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 22, Issue 3, March 2008, 307 – 312.

 

Michael G. Jenkins, Edgar Lara-Curzio, William E. Windes, “(GENIV) Next Generation Nuclear Power and Requirements for Standards, Codes and Data Bases for Ceramic Matrix Composites”, Ceramics in Nuclear and Alternative Energy Applications: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 27, Issue 5, March 2008, 2 – 7.

 

Lance Lewis Snead, Timothy D Burchell, Will Windes, Yutai Katoh, “Ceramic Composites for near term reactor application”, Proceedings of the 4th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature reactor Technology HTR2008, September 28-October 1, 2008, Washington, DC USA.

 

Timothy D Burchell, Rob Bratton, Barry Marsden, Makuteswara Srinivasan, Scott Penfield, Mark Mitchell, Will Windes, “Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 5: Graphite PIRTs”, NUREG/CR-6944, Vol. 5, 2007, Washington, DC USA.

Presentations:

W.E. Windes, T.D. Burchell, W.D. Swank, and M.C. Carroll, “The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Graphite R&D Program”, ANS Transactions, November 2011.

 

W. D. Swank, M. Carroll, & W. Windes “The NGNP Graphite R&D Program”, presented at High Temperature Reactors, HTR-2010, Prague, Czech Republic, 18-21 October.

 

M. Carroll, W. D. Swank, & W. Windes “R&D for the NGNP Graphite Program”, presented at NuMat-2010, Prague, Czech Republic, 18-21 October.

 

W. Windes, T. Burchell, W. Swank, J. Strizak and M. Carroll, “The USA’s NGNP Graphite R&D Programme”, presented at INGSM-11, 12-15 September 2010, Eastbourne England.

 

W. D. Swank, J. R. Lord, D. Rohrbaugh and W. E. Windes, “Pre-Irradiation Characterisation of AGC-2 Specimens”, presented at INGSM-11, 12-15 September 2010, Eastbourne England.

 

M. Figueroa and W. Windes, ”Determining Pore Structures in Nuclear Graphite”, presented at INGSM-11, 12-15 September 2010, Eastbourne England.

 

Y. Katoh, L.L. Snead, K. Ozawa, C. Contescu, T.D. Burchell, S. Gonczy and W.E. Windes, “Carbon Composite R&D for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors”, presented at INGSM-11, 12-15 September 2010, Eastbourne England.

 

L. Luyken, M. Figueroa, W. Windes, T.J. Marrow and B.J. Marsden, “Thermal Creep in Polycrystalline Graphite”, presented at INGSM-11, 12-15 September 2010, Eastbourne England.

 

D.W. Swank, W. Windes, J. Lord, and DC Haggard, “Limitations of Heat Loss Models in Laser Flash Diffusivity Measurements”, 10th International Nuclear Graphite Specialists Meeting, September 28-30, 2009, West Yellowstone, Montana.

 

M.C. Carroll and W.E. Windes, “Baseline Characterization and Variability in Nuclear-Grade Graphite”, 10th International Nuclear Graphite Specialists Meeting, September 28-30, 2009 West Yellowstone, Montana.

 

Y. Katoh, L. Snead, T. Burchell, and W. Windes, “Composite Materials Technology Development Road Map for Use in High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors”, 10th International Nuclear Graphite Specialists Meeting, September 28-30, 2009 West Yellowstone, Montana.

 

B. Grover, S. Barrie, K. Skinner, M. Weseman, W. Windes, “AGC-1 graphite creep experiment assembly and insertion”, 10th International Nuclear Graphite Specialists Meeting, September 28-30, 2009 West Yellowstone, Montana.

 

W. Windes, L. Snead, Y. Katoh, R. Shinavski, and T. Burchell “Ceramic Composites for Next Generation Power Plant”, Proceedings from the International Symposium on Silicon Carbide and Carbon-based Materials for Fusion and Advanced nuclear Energy Applications at the 33rd International Conference and Exposition on Advanced Ceramics and Composites. January 18-23, 2009, Daytona Beach, Florida, USA.

 

W. Windes, T. Burchell, R. Bratton, “The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Graphite Program”, Proceedings of the 4th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology, HTR-2008, September 28-October 1, 2008 USA.

 

W.E. Windes, D.S. Wendt, R.L. Bewley, B.M. O’Brien, “Nitride Fuel Development at the INL”, Space Nuclear Conference 2007 (SNC ’07), Boston, USA, June 25-27, 2007.

 

D.S. Wendt, W.E. Windes, R.L. Bewley, “A Spouted Bed Reactor Monitoring System for Particulate Nuclear Fuel”, Space Nuclear Conference 2007 (SNC ’07), Boston, USA, June 25-27, 2007.

 

B.M. O'Brien, W.E. Windes, A.E. Erickson, “Nitride Fuel Development Using Cryo-process Technique”, Space Nuclear Conference 2007 (SNC ’07), Boston, USA, June 25-27, 2007.

 

B.W. Cunningham, D.E. Burkes, R.S. Fielding, W.E. Windes, S.D. Howe, “Tungsten Cermet Fabrication by a Joule Heating Process”, Space Nuclear Conference 2007 (SNC ’07), Boston, USA, June 25-27, 2007.

 

W.E. Windes, Y. Katoh, L. Snead, and C. Henager, “Structural Ceramic Composites for the VHTR”, ANS Transactions, Vol. 94 (2006) pp. 674-675.

 

W.E. Windes, “Mechanical Testing and Fracture Studies of a Nickel-Alumina Functionally Graded Material System”, INEEL external report, INEEL/EXT-04-01558, 2004.

 

W.E. Windes, L.D. Zuck, E.L. Shaber, A.E. Erickson, and P.A. Lessing, ”A Low CTE Intermetallic Bipolar Plate”, Eighth International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC-VIII), Paris, France, April 27 – May 2, 2003.

 

W.E. Windes, A.E. Erickson, P.A. Lessing, G. Huestis, and E. Shaber, “Fabrication Methods of a Leaky SOFC Design”, Eighth International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC-VIII), Paris, France, April 27 – May 2, 2003.

 

W.E. Windes, P.A. Lessing, and L.D. Zuck,”Plasma Spray Coatings for SOFC”, Fuel Cell Seminar – 2002, November 18-21, Palm Springs 2002.

 

W.E. Windes and E.D. Steffler, “Interfacial Influence on Mechanical Properties of Layered Materials”, 6th International Symposium on Functionally Graded Materials, Estes Park, Colorado, American Ceramics Society, October 9 - 12, 2000.

 

E.D. Steffler and W.E. Windes, “Fracture in Functionally Graded Materials”, 6th international Symposium on Functionally Graded Materials, Estes Park, Colorado, American Ceramics Society, October 9 - 12, 2000.

 

W.E. Windes and E.D. Steffler, “Mechanical Response of Functionally Graded Materials”, 102nd Conference of the American Ceramics Society, April 30-May 3, 2000.

 

W.E. Windes, K. Rozenburg, and Ivar Reimanis, "Kinetics Issues in the Formation of Spinel at Nickel/Alumina Graded Composites", MRS Fall 1999 Meeting, Symposium M - Interfacial Engineering for Optimized Properties II, Boston, Massachusetts, November 29 - December 3, 1999.

 

W.E. Windes, E.D. Steffler, and A.N. Winter, “Influence of Interfaces on Deformation of Functionally Graded Materials (FGM)”, Composites at Lake Louise 1999, Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada, Oct 31 – Nov 5, 1999.

 

I.E. Reimanis, A.N. Winter, and J. Chapa, W.E. Windes, and E.D. Steffler, ”Fracture and Deformation in Ductile/Brittle Joints with Graded Structures", The American Ceramic Society Pacific Coast Regional, Basic Science and Electronics Divisions Meeting, Symposium on Multilayered and Graded Composites and Structures, Bellevue, Washington October 27-29, 1999.

 

D. F. Bruhn, C. R. Breckenridge, M. N. Tsang, C. S. Watkins, W.E. Windes, F. F. Roberto, R. N. Wright, P. J. Pinhero, and R. R. Brey, “Irradiation of Microbes From Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Pool Environments”, Global ’99, Jackson Hole WY, August 29 – September 4, 1999.

 

W.E. Windes, I.E. Riemanis, E.D. Steffler, and A.N. Winter, “Fabrication of Large Functionally Graded Materials”, 101st Conference of the American Ceramics Society, April 24-27, 1999.

 

R.E. Lords, W.E. Windes, J.C. Crepeau, and R.W. Sidwell, “Drying Studies of Simulated DOE Aluminum Plate Fuels”, American Nuclear Society Embedded Topical Meeting on DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel and Fissile Material Management, Reno NV, June 16-20, 1996.

 

R.J. Guenther, E.R. Gilbert, S.P. Pednekar, A.B. Johnson, Jr., A.L. Lund, and W.E. Windes, “Basis For Assessing the Movement of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Wet to Dry Storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant”, American Nuclear Society Annual Meeting, October 20, 1994.

 

R.A. Weber, W.E. Windes, R.H. Mayhall, Jr., “Development of a Remote Drill/Injection System as a Render-Safe Tool for Explosive Ordnance Disposal”, US Army Corps of Engineers, USACERL Technical Report M-91/27, September 1991.

Research Interests:

​Processing, characterization, and analysis of novel material systems for both nuclear and non-nuclear applications including materials for use in high temperature, irradiation, and other extreme environments.

Version: 9.0
Created at 1/12/2016 8:47 AM by Phyllis L. King
Last modified at 11/29/2018 9:35 AM by hailey.goddard@inl.gov